小学英语语法总结:现在完成时
来源:未知 作者:华瑞教育 发布时间:2013-07-25
现在完成时
构成:主语+助动词have, has+过去分词
 
用法:
1) 表示过去发生的和现在有某种联系的动作,常和just, usually, already, since等时间副词连用。
  I have just had lunch. (饱了,不用再吃了。)
  He has had a cup of tea.(不渴了,不用再喝。)
  They have already had their holiday. (不能再度假了。)
  The boy has already read the book. (已经知道书的内容了,不用再看了。)
 
2) 询问别人是否做过某事一般用现在完成时:
  Have you finished your homework?
  Have you been to Beijing?
  Have he seen the film?
 
3) 表示开始于过去并持续到现在的动作
  I have lived in Beijing for twenty years.
  I have worked for this school for 1 year.
4) 表示一种经历,经验:去过…地方,做过…事情,经历过…事情
  I have never had a bath.
  I have never seen a film.
  I have never been to cinema.
  I have ever been to Paris.
  Have been to表示去过,have gone to 表示去了
  I have been to London.(人已经回来)
  He has gone to London.(人还在那里)
 
5) 表示一种结果, 一般不和时间副词联用
  I have lost my pen.
  I have hurt myself.
  He has become a teacher.
  She has broken my heart.

句型变化:
★变疑问句将助动词移到句首,变否定句在助动词后面加not.
  Have you lost your pen? I have not lost my pen.
 
★肯定回答及否定回答
  Yes, I have. / No, I have not.
 
★特殊疑问句
  What have you done?
  What has he done?
 
一般过去时与现在完成时的区别:
  凡是有明确的表示过去的时间状语的句子为过去时。
  注意:有些动词表示的动作有一个终点,不能再延续,因此不能和表示一段时间状语连用。
  错:I’ve left Beijing for 3 days.
  对:I left Beijing 3 days ago. I have been away from being for 3 days.

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